ZK-SNARKs are a zero-knowledge (ZK) proof technology used for succinct proofs and verifications. However, this technology comes with several limitations. ZK-STARK (T standing for "transparent") is a newer zero-knowledge proof technology that helps resolve the primary weaknesses of ZK-SNARKs.

## Issues ZK-STARKs Help Resolve

ZK-STARKs utilize simpler cryptographic assumptions and avoid:
1. Reliance on a "trusted setup"
2. The uses of elliptic curves and pairings
3. The knowledge-of-exponent assumptions
ZK-STARKs only rely on hashes and information theory. Which keeps them secure from attackers with quantum computers.

## The Cost of ZK-STARKs

- ZK-STARKs require much larger proofs than ZK-SNARKs. The size of proof increases from 288 bytes to a few hundred kilobytes.
- However, the cost is not worth it when the need for trust minimization is high, such as in the context of public blockchains.

## How General ZK Proofs Work

Let f(x) = y
- f: public function
- x: private input
- y: public output
A ZK proof allows one to prove that they know an x such that f(x) =y without revealing the private input.

## Limitations of ZK-STARKs:

- ZK proofs are intended to be succinct, meaning the proof is quicker than the computation itself.
- However, data greater than any degree-1,000,000 polynomial miss the mark for succinctness.

### Solutions:

- Proof of Proximity
- Two Catch Proof